Arduino overview


May 15, 2021 14:00 Arduino


Table of contents


Arduino is a prototype platform (open source) based on easy-to-use hardware and software. /b10>It consists of a programmable circuit board called a microcontroller and off-the-go software called the Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that writes and uploads computer code to the physical board.


The main features are:

  • The Arduino board can read analog or digital input signals from different sensors and convert them into outputs, such as activating the motor, turning the LED on/off, connecting to the cloud, and more.

  • You can use the Arduino IDE (upload software) to send a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board to control board functionality.

  • Unlike most previous programmable circuit boards, Arduino does not require additional hardware, called a programmer, to load new code on the board. A ll you need to do is use a USB cable.

  • In addition, the Arduino IDE uses a simplified version of C+ to make it easier to learn programming.

  • Finally, Arduino offers a standard form factor that breaks down the capabilities of microcontrollers into easier-to-use packages.


Arduino overview

The type of Arduino board

Depending on the microcontroller used, a variety of Arduino boards are available. /b10> However, all Arduino boards have one thing in common: they are programmed through the Arduino IDE.

The difference is based on the number of inputs and outputs (the number of sensors, LEDs and buttons that can be used on a single board), speed, operating voltage, form factor, etc. S ome boards are designed to be embedded and do not have programming interfaces (hardware), so you need to purchase them separately. /b11> Some can run directly from a 3.7V battery, while others require at least 5V.

Below is a list of the different Arduino boards available.

Arduino board based on ATMEGA328 microcontroller

The name of the board Operating voltage Clock speed Number i/o Simulated input Pwm Uart Programming interface
Arduino Uno R3 5V 16MHz 14 6 6 1 USB via ATMega16U2
Arduino Uno R3 SMD 5V 16MHz 14 6 6 1 USB via ATMega16U2
Red Board 5V 16MHz 14 6 6 1 USB via FTDI
Arduino Pro 3.3v/8 MHz 3.3V 8MHz 14 6 6 1 FTDI-compatible head
Arduino Pro 5V/16MHz 5V 16MHz 14 6 6 1 FTDI-compatible head
Arduino mini 05 5V 16MHz 14 8 6 1 FTDI-compatible head
Arduino Pro mini 3.3v/8mhz 3.3V 8MHz 14 8 6 1 FTDI-compatible head
Arduino Pro mini 5v/16mhz 5V 16MHz 14 8 6 1 FTDI-compatible head
Arduino Ethernet
5V 16MHz 14 6 6 1 FTDI-compatible head
Arduino Fio 3.3V 8MHz 14 8 6 1 FTDI-compatible head
LilyPad Arduino 328 main board 3.3V 8MHz 14 6 6 1 FTDI-compatible head
LilyPad Arduino simply board 3.3V 8MHz 9 4 5 0 FTDI-compatible head

Arduino board based on ATMEGA32u4 microcontroller

The name of the board Operating voltage Clock speed Number i/o Simulated input Pwm Uart Programming interface
Arduino Leonardo 5V 16MHz 20 12 7 1 This machine USB
Pro micro 5V/16MHz 5V 16MHz 14 6 6 1 This machine USB
Pro micro 3.3V/8MHz 5V 16MHz 14 6 6 1 This machine USB
LilyPad Arduino USB 3.3V 8MHz 14 6 6 1 This machine USB

Arduino card based on ATMEGA2560 microcontroller

The name of the board Operating voltage Clock speed Number i/o Simulated input Pwm Uart Programming interface
Arduino Mega 2560 R3 5V 16MHz 54 16 14 4 USB via ATMega16U2B
Mega Pro 3.3V 3.3V 8MHz 54 16 14 4 FTDI-compatible head
Mega Pro 5V 5V 16MHz 54 16 14 4 FTDI-compatible head
Mega Pro Mini 3.3V 3.3V 8MHz 54 16 14 4 FTDI-compatible head

Arduino card based on AT91SAM3X8E microcontroller

The name of the board Operating voltage Clock speed Number i/o Simulated input Pwm Uart Programming interface
Arduino Mega 2560 R3 3.3V 84MHz 54 12 12 4 This machine USB