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Python ---- the matplotlib pie chart and histogram of data visualization


May 31, 2021 Article blog


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Matplotlib library can draw graphs, but also can draw statistical graphs, this article describes pie charts, bar charts and other commonly used statistical graphics drawing methods. Recommended lessons: Python automated office, with Python automated office as a workplace master.

1, pie chart

Draw a pie chart using the pie() method:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt


Print ('\ n ----- Welcome to W3cschool.cn')

plt.rc('font',family='Arial',size='9')

plt.rc('axes',unicode_minus='False')

labels = ['Strawberry', 'Apple', 'Banana', 'Pear', 'Orange']

SIZES = [39, 20, 55, 30, 25] # Value of each element, automatically calculates percentage based on this value

Explode = [0.1, 0.2, 0, 0, 0] # Expansion distance of each element, specified 0 and 1

fig, ax = plt.subplots()

ax.pie(sizes, explode=explode, labels=labels, autopct='%1.1f%%', shadow=True, startangle=0)

# AutoPCT Accuracy Startangle The starting angle of the first element, other elements are tissue in counter-hour, whether Shadow uses a shadow

Ax.axis ('scaled') # Set the pattern of the pie chart, set to equals displayed is round

fig.savefig('matplot-basic-pie.jpg')

plt.show()

The effect is as shown:

 Python ---- the matplotlib pie chart and histogram of data visualization1


ax.pie() method parameters:

  • sizes: the absolute value size of each element, the relative percentage will be calculated according to these values;
  • explode: the value of each part popping out;
  • autopct: the display accuracy of the percentage;
  • shadow: whether to display shadows;
  • Startangle: The position of the starting element is the position of the starting angle of the labels, and the remaining elements are organized counterclockwise.

2, bar chart

Use the bar() method to draw a bar chart:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import numpy as np


Print ('\ n ----- Welcome to W3cschool.cn')

plt.rc('font',family='Arial',size='9')

plt.rc('axes',unicode_minus='False')

fig, ax = plt.subplots()

fruit = ('Banana', 'Strawberry', 'Watermelon', 'Apple', 'Papaya', 'Tomatoes')

weight = (100,135,50,83,92,66)

ax.bar(fruit, weight, align='center',width=0.7)

Ax.set_ylabel ('weight') # Settings an X-axis tag

ax.set_title('Histogram')

fig.savefig('matplot-bar.jpg')

plt.show()

The effect is as shown:


 Python ---- the matplotlib pie chart and histogram of data visualization2

Bar() parameter:

  • 1st fixed parameter: x coordinate point name
  • 2nd fixed parameter: y coordinate value
  • alignment: alignment;
  • width: the width of the bar;

3, horizontal bar chart

Draw a horizontal bar chart using the barh() method:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import numpy as np


Print ('\ n ----- Welcome to W3cschool.cn')

plt.rc('font',family='Arial',size='9')

plt.rc('axes',unicode_minus='False')

fig, ax = plt.subplots()

fruit = ('Banana', 'Strawberry', 'Watermelon', 'Apple', 'Papaya', 'Tomatoes')

y_pos = np.arange(len(fruit))

weight = (100,135,50,83,92,66)

ax.barh(y_pos, weight, align='center',height=0.7)

AX.SET_YTICKS # Sets the y-axis coordinate

Ax.set_ytyicklabels (wind) # Set Y-axis tag

AX.INVERT_YAXIS () # Setting the label from top to bottom, more in line with reading habits

Ax.set_xlabel ('weight') # Settings an x-axis tag

ax.set_title('Horizontal bar chart')

fig.savefig('matplot-hor-bar.jpg')

plt.show()

The effect is as shown:

 Python ---- the matplotlib pie chart and histogram of data visualization3

Barh() method parameters:

  • 1st fixed parameter: y axis coordinates;
  • The second fixed parameter: the width value, in fact, corresponds to the length of the x axis;
  • alignment: alignment method, optional centerer and edge, representing the position of the bar chart and the corresponding y axis coordinates of the relationship;
  • height: The height of the bar y direction

ax.invert_yaxis() means that the y coordinate is reversed, which is more in line with reading habits, and the 0th element is displayed at the top.

4, grouped bar chart

A grouped bar chart is a combination of a bar chart, which is actually a combination of two bars:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import numpy as np

Print ('\ n ----- Welcome to W3cschool.cn')

plt.rc('font',family='Arial',size='9')

plt.rc('axes',unicode_minus='False')

fruit = ('Banana', 'Strawberry', 'Watermelon', 'Apple', 'Papaya', 'Tomatoes')

weight = (100,135,50,83,92,66)

count = (20,15,30,53,22,36)

x = np.arange(len(fruit))

fig, ax = plt.subplots()

width = 0.4

ax.bar(x-width/2, weight,  width=width,label='weight')

ax.bar(x+width/2, count,  width=width,label='number')

ax.set_title('Grouping histogram')

Ax.set_ylabel ('Weight / Number') # Set Y-axis tag

Ax.set_xticks (x) # Set X-axis coordinate values

Ax.set_xtickLabels (FRUIT) # Set X-axis coordinate tag

fig.savefig('matplot-bar-group.jpg')

Ax.Legend () # Display legend

plt.show()

The effect is as shown:


 Python ---- the matplotlib pie chart and histogram of data visualization4

The first parameter of the bar() entry parameter is not a tuple that uses the classification form directly, but a numpy array that is redefined according to the number of categories, so that the two bars can be placed side-by-side based on half of the value plus or minus width.

Usage is similar to pyplot.plot(), with an additional parameterwhere indicating which position the dash ladder is in the front and last at that point, which can be 'pre', 'mid', 'post' and other three types, the default 'pre'.